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  1. Text (in Latin texere‚ weave‘‚ twist‘) called in the non-scientific usage a separated, coherent, mostly written linguistic statement, in the broader sense also not written, but writeable linguistic information (for example, of a song, film or an impromptu theatrical performance).
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  3. From linguistic view a text is the linguistic form of a communicative action. Texts are determined on the one hand by pragmatic, situation-related, "text-external" signs, on the other hand, by linguistic, "text-internal" signs. [1] in the linguistics and communication science there exist many different text definitions side by side which separate texts and "non-texts" with the help of different Textualitätskriterien of each other. Further calm text concepts also enclose illustrations or elements of the non-verbal communication (possibly facial play and gesture) in the text. Even a pure picture sequence can be valid [2] under circumstances as a text if with it recognizably a communicative function is fulfilled. [3] the concept of the "discontinuous" text from the area of the linguistic didactics encloses texts which are written not consecutively and partially help themselves of non-linguistic means, like forms, tables and lists, graphics and diagrammes.
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  5. Texts can be shown with the help of a writing, encode sign phonemes, syllables or words or concepts. Different cultures use moreover different alphabets. A possibility was got by the introduction of the writing to put into archives texts, as for example historiography, stories and legends, for the future generations. A large part of the historical knowledge comes from written recordings which were put into archives or were preserved by chance. Texts from cultures with a written tradition tradition differ in her construction from texts from cultures in which the verbal tradition plays a bigger role. In the humanities are added the cultures by which no written documents are delivered the prehistory and early history. Therefore a though indirect, but still very significant definition of the object of the science of history is given by the tradition of texts.
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  7. Textualitätskriterien and text definitions
  8. As mentioned above, a more exact, scientific consideration leads to more complicated definition and description attempts. One calls the quality of the "text being" Textualität, the linguistic investigation of texts is the text linguistics. This discipline makes available different Textualitätskriterien.
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  10. Robert Alain de beau's grandee and Wolfgang Ulrich Dressler introduced in 1981 a row of such criteria. These criteria refer on the one hand to the signs of the text even (cohesion, so formal cohesion and coherence, so logical cohesion), on the other hand, on the signs of a communication situation from which the concerning text originates or in which he is used (Intentionalität, Akzeptabilität, Informativität, Situationalität).
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  12. Cohesion and coherence belong to the farthest accepted Textualitätskriterien, but also here there are divergences: There are absolutely texts which exist of incoherent words or even sounds, partly also from sound paintings diminished up to bare noises, and they, on the whole still multi-layered interpretable, own kind of Textualität reach (e.g., Dada's poems).
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  14. Here the situation-related Textualitätskriterien come into play: Texts are also determined by the fact that a transmitter produces them with a certain intention (intention) and/or a receiver accepts them as those. Whether a text is satisfactory to a certain receiver, depends again strongly on whether this one connection of the received statement with his situation produce, the text can "insert" in his image world (Situationalität), and whether the text is informative for him, so in a certain relation contains expected and unexpected, known and new elements. To come back to the example of the Dada's poem: Obviously kohäsiver or coherent text cannot be satisfactory as such if the receiver assumes from the fact that the intention of the transmitter requires a high degree of surprising or from the norm to divergent elements in the text.
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  16. The Intertextualität as the last of the Textualitätskriterien after de beau's grandee and Dressler is the quality of a text to stand with other texts in connection and to refer to them. In literary texts this often happens by deliberate references and quotations, Intertextualität can think her expression, nevertheless, e.g., also in the fact that a use text fulfils the usual conventions of his text kind.
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  18. The single Textualitätskriterien cited here are argumentative in her interpretation by de beau's grandee / Dressler partly. In general is recognised that a text has a recognizable communicative function which is determined by the communicative intention of the transmitter and the expectations of the receiver that he is separated as a statement and is oriented thematically, disposes i.e. of a content core. Such a text definition from communicative-pragmatic perspective offers Susanne.